IPO Investing

Understanding an offer document

This section basically deals with the contents in an offer document.

Cover Page

The Cover Page of the offer document covers full contact details of the issuer company, lead managers and registrars, the type of issue, the nature, number, price and amount of shares offered and issue size, and the particulars regarding listing. Other details such as Credit Rating, risks in relation to the first issue, etc are disclosed if applicable.

Risk Factors

Here, the issuer’s management gives its view on the Internal and external risks faced by the company. Here, the company also makes a note on the forward looking statements. This information is disclosed in the initial pages of the document and it is also clearly disclosed in the abridged prospectus. It is generally advised that the investors should go through all the risk factors of the company before making an investment decision.


The introduction covers a summary of the industry and business of the issuer company, the offering details in brief, summary of consolidated financial, operating and other data relating to general Information about the company, the merchant bankers and their responsibilities, the details of brokers/syndicate members to the Issue, credit rating (in case of debt issue), debenture trustees (in case of debt issue), monitoring agency, book building process in brief and details of underwriting Agreements are given here. Important details of capital structure, objects of the offering, funds requirement, funding plan, schedule of implementation, funds deployed, sources of financing of funds already deployed, sources of financing for the balance fund requirement, interim use of funds, basic terms of issue, basis for issue price, tax benefits are also covered in this section.

About Us

This presents a review of  the details of the business of the company, business strategy, competitive strengths, industry-regulation (if applicable), history and corporate structure, main objects, subsidiary details, management and board of directors, compensation, corporate governance, related party transactions, exchange rates, currency of presentation dividend policy and management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are given.

Financial Statements

Financial statement and restatement as per the requirement of the Guidelines and differences between the accounting policies and the Indian Accounting Policies (if the Company has presented its Financial Statements also as per Either US GAAP/IAS are presented.

Legal and Other Information

Outstanding litigations and material developments, litigations involving the company and its subsidiaries, promoters and group companies are disclosed. Also material developments since the last balance sheet date, government approvals/licensing arrangements, investment approvals (FIPB/RBI etc.), technical approvals, indebtedness, etc. are disclosed.

Other Regulatory and Statutory Disclosures

Under this head, the following information is covered: authority for the Issue, prohibition by SEBI, eligibility of the company to enter the capital market, disclaimer clause, disclaimer in respect of jurisdiction, distribution of information to investors, disclaimer clause of the stock exchanges, listing, impersonation, minimum subscription, letters of allotment or refund orders, consents, expert opinion, changes in the auditors in the last 3 years, expenses of the issue, fees payable to the intermediaries involved in the issue process, details of all previous issues, all outstanding instruments, commission and brokerage on previous issues, capitalisation of reserves or profits, option to subscribe in the issue, purchase of property, revaluation of assets, classes of shares, stock market data for equity shares of the company, promise vis-à-vis performance in the past issues, mechanism for redressal of investor grievances.

Offering Information

Under this head, the following information is covered: Terms of the Issue, mode of payment of dividend, face value and issue price, rights of the equity shareholder, market lot, nomination facility to investor, issue procedure, book building procedure in details along with the process of making an application. signing of underwriting agreement and filing of prospectus with SEBI/ROC, announcement of statutory advertisement, issuance of confirmation of allocation note("can") and allotment in the issue, designated date, general instructions, instructions for completing the bid form, payment instructions, submission of bid form, other instructions, disposal of application and application monies, , interest on refund of excess bid amount, basis of allotment or allocation, method of proportionate allotment, dispatch of refund orders, communications, undertaking by the company, utilisation of issue proceeds, restrictions on foreign ownership of Indian securities, etc.,

Other Information

This covers description of equity shares and terms of the Articles of Association, material contracts and documents for inspection, declaration, definitions and abbreviations, etc,

Past Track Record of Defaults/Economic Offences

Investors should also visit www.watchoutinvestors.com, a website aided and sponsored by the Ministry of Company Affairs under its Investor Education & Protection Fund. This website is a national registry of all entities and individuals who have been indicted by various regulators ( like MCA, RBI, SEBI, BSE,NSE etc) for an economic offence and/or for non-compliance laws/guidelines and/or who are no longer in the specified activity.


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Information provided herein is purely for dissemination of information and creating awareness among the investors about various aspects of investing. Although due care and diligence has been taken, the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) shall not be responsible for any loss or damage resulting from any action taken by a person on the basis of the contents hosted on the website. It may also be noted that laws/regulations governing the markets are continuously evolving, hence an investor should familiarize himself with the latest laws/ regulations by visiting the relevant websites or contacting the relevant regulatory body.